New Delhi Ministerial Communique 2007, India-Brazil-South Africa


The Minister of External Affairs of India, H.E. Mr. Pranab Mukherjee, the Minister of External Relations of Brazil, H.E. Mr. Celso Amorim, and the Minister of Foreign Affairs of South Africa, H.E. Dr. Nkosazana Dlamini-Zuma, met in New Delhi on 17 July 2007 for the Fourth Meeting of the Trilateral Commission of the IBSA Dialogue Forum.

2. The Ministers reaffirmed the IBSA Dialogue as an important mechanism for political consultations and coordination on important regional and global developments. The Ministers reconfirmed their determination to play a constructive role in international affairs and to maintain friendly relations with all countries. The Ministers called for enhancing socio- economic cooperation in various sectors among India, Brazil and South Africa, inter alia, by implementation of decisions taken earlier.

GLOBAL ISSUES

GLOBAL GOVERNANCE

  1. The Ministers stressed the need to make the structures of global governance more democratic, representative and legitimate by increasing the participation of developing countries in the decision-making bodies of multilateral institutions.

  2. The Ministers reiterated their continued support for the reform of the United Nations to make it more democratic and responsive to the priorities of its Member States, particularly those of developing countries that constitute the vast majority of its membership.

  3. The Ministers emphasized that the Security Council must, in its composition, represent contemporary realities and not those of the year 1945. Keeping in view

    that the decisions of

    the Security Council should serve the interests of the larger United Nations Membership, the Ministers emphasized the need for the urgent reform of the Security Council that would

    include its expansion in both categories of membership, permanent and non-permanent, in order to render it more democratic, legitimate, representative and responsive.

  1. Towards this end, the representation of developing countries from Africa, Asia and Latin America, as permanent members of the Security Council, is essential. The Ministers

    reaffirmed their commitment to continue to jointly pursue a decision on the Security Council expansion. In this regard, they noted the ongoing efforts at the United Nations. This

    commitment will be pursued on an urgent basis, with a view to achieving concrete results by the end of the 61st UN General Assembly.

  2. he Ministers welcomed the operationalisation of the Peace Building Commission in June 2006 and the Peace Building Fund in October 2006. The Ministers noted with satisfaction the Peace Building Commission's efforts to provide medium and

    long-term peace consolidation advice to countries emerging from conflict situations, as well as funding from the Peace Building Fund for peace consolidation projects. With the

    cases of Sierra Leone and Burundi being examined by the Peace Building Commission in their country � specific configurations, the Peace Building Commission has produced

    satisfactory results. However, in the year ahead, the Ministers noted the need for the Peace Building Commission to work towards more practical and concrete outcomes from its

    efforts to promote peace consolidation. In this context, as members of the current Organizational Committee of the Peace Building Commission, the Ministers reaffirmed their commitment to promote further concrete outcomes from the Peace Building Commission in the year ahead.

  3. he Ministers also expressed satisfaction on the first year of the functioning of the Human Rights Council, created as part of the UN reform process in 2006, and

    expressed their commitment to ensuring that it fulfils the expectations of the international community. Following the establishment of the Peace Building Commission and the Human Rights Council, the UN reform process must now concentrate on reform of the Security Council.

  1. The Ministers recommitted their respective delegations to the UN and its specialised agencies, as well as other multilateral bodies, to remain in close contact with each

    other and to consult on all issues of significance.

  2. he Ministers stressed the necessity of reforming the International Financial Architecture, specially by enhancing the voice and participation of developing countries in the Bretton Woods institutions and expressed concern at the slow rate of progress that has been achieved so far.

    MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS

11. The Ministers stressed that achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as part of global efforts to eradicate poverty and hunger, required international support.

The Ministers noted with concern that commitments undertaken by developed countries for increase in Official Development Assistance (ODA) have not been fulfilled. The Ministers

further stressed the need by developed countries to liberalize trade and eliminate subsidies on products of interest to developing countries. The Ministers also reiterated the importance of capacity building and equity and transparency in international economic relations for

developing countries to achieve the MDGs, especially sub- Saharan Africa. The Ministers underscored their agreement to work together to eradicate poverty and promote sustained

economic growth, sustainable development and global prosperity for all.

INTERNATIONAL TRADE

Proposed MERCOSUR-India-SACU Trilateral Free Trade Area

12. With reference to paragraph 45 of the First IBSA Summit Meeting Joint

Declaration (Bras�lia, 13 September 2006), the Ministers reaffirmed their commitment to implementing the determination of the Heads of State and Government concerning the expeditious establishment of the Working Group to focus on the modalities for the envisaged India-MERCOSUR-SACU Trilateral Free Trade Agreement (T-FTA). In this regard, India, South Africa and Brazil support the establishment of the Working Group no later than early September 2007. As members of SACU and MERCOSUR, respectively, South Africa will work with its partners in SACU, and Brazil will work with MERCOSUR's pro-tempore President with a view to setting a date and place for the first meeting of the Working Group.

  1. The Ministers noted that while global trade plays an important role in fostering economic development and fighting poverty, it continues to face important barriers and

    distortions particularly in the agricultural sector, which affect the overall efforts of developing countries to enhance the well-being of their societies.

  2. he Ministers urged the WTO members to reaffirm their commitments to achieve the necessary agreements, so as to conclude the negotiations of the Doha Development Agenda. The Ministers expressed the view that Brazil, India and South Africa as members of the WTO Group of 20, share the belief that the cornerstone of the current negotiations is the agricultural sector, which is of utmost relevance for the well-being of our most vulnerable populations. In particular, agreement has to be reached to eliminate trade distortions, especially those limiting access to the developed countries' markets, including domestic support and other forms of internal support instrumented by the developed countries. Meaningful and operable special and differential treatment, which includes development instruments of Special Products and the Special Safeguard Mechanism are vital to address the concerns of developing countries with subsistence and low- income farmers. The Ministers emphasized that any progress towards achieving these aforementioned goals will have a positive impact on the overall process of the Doha Round, in particular in the NAMA and services negotiations.

  3. he Ministers noted that an effective Aid for Trade programme will enhance growth prospects and reduce poverty in developing countries. As this requires substantial,additional, targeted resources for trade-related programmes and projects, the Ministers urged developed countries to leverage their aid for infrastructural development so thatdeveloping countries, particularly LDCs, could benefit from the present level of market access available to them.

16. The Ministers underlined that a more open world economy takes into account the promotion of financial flows, notably foreign direct investment, in a way that contributes to the sustainability of development, the transfer of avant-garde technology and the creation of decent employment, all of which are tools for the definitive fight against poverty.

CLIMATE CHANGE

  1. The Ministers noted that climate change is a global challenge with strong economic, environmental and social dimensions. It impacts all countries, but is particularly

    severe for developing countries, given their vulnerabilities, inadequate means and limited capacities to adapt to its effects. The recent reports of the IPCC have reaffirmed the

    need for urgent action. The Ministers reaffirmed that at this critical juncture all countries should do more in accordance with their common but differentiated responsibilities and

    respective capabilities. The Ministers also urged that immediate and real effect must be given to commitments on international cooperation in fighting climate change,

    especially in the areas of adaptation, technology transfer, capacity building and the development of the carbon market. This cooperation should be framed by the need to address unsustainable patterns of production and consumption.

  2. he Ministers underlined that climate change is a global phenomenon that requires an international response under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Any new cooperative effort to tackle climate change should not

    undermine the UNFCCC and its Kyoto Protocol, but rather complement these

    instruments. GHG mitigation in developed countries is key to address climate change given their

    responsibilities in causing it. Developed countries must take the lead by making further truly significant commitments at an early date for GHG reductions in the period beyond 2012. Early and significant commitments would give a long-term and strong signal to the private sector, including in its involvement in climate related investments, and spur the

    carbon market. The Clean Development Mechanism's contribution to sustainable development and transfer of clean technologies to developing countries would also be enhanced significantly.

  1. The Ministers agreed that in the energy sector lies a strategic opportunity for the IBSA partners to engage in a pioneer and fruitful dialogue among developing countries with

    a view to strengthen coordination regarding cross-cutting issues such as poverty eradication, climate change, energy security and South-South cooperation.

  2. he Ministers expressed their satisfaction with the successful launching of the International Biofuels Forum which took place on 2 March 2007 in New York and reaffirmed the importance of the efforts being made in the context of the initiative to promote the establishment of an international market for biofuels.

  3. he Ministers welcomed the forthcoming realization of the Biofuels International Conference to be held in Brazil, in July 2008, to discuss how to enhance international

    cooperation to promote the production and use of biofuels in the global level. The Ministers mentioned the contribution of biofuels as a cost-effective and immediate measure to address

    climate change accessible to developing countries.

  4. he Ministers stressed that in order for developing countries to contribute to the efforts to address climate change, access to adequate technology is a key enabling condition. The Ministers expressed that there was need for an agreement on transfer of technologies at affordable costs for accelerated mitigation efforts in developing countries, inter alia through increased use of renewable energy, including biofuels, and enhanced energy efficiency. Rewards for innovators need to be balanced with common good for humankind. It is also necessary and

    important to enhance developing countries' capacities to deploy mitigation and adaptation technologies.

23. The Ministers also expressed their commitment to the trilateral work in biofuels and urged the Trilateral Task Team on Biofuels to deepen the discussions aimed at expanding

the cooperation of the partners in this field, undertaking joint research on development, production of biofuels and engine redesign so as to enlarge their applications and

reduce cost of deployment. 24. The Ministers noted that many needed technologies based

on resource endowments of developing countries (e.g. biomass, biofuels, clean coal) do not yet exist, or are too expensive. Collaborative R&D between developing and developed country R&D institutions can address this gap. Financing can be through a venture capital fund, located in multilateral financial institutions, with the resulting IPRs being held by

the fund, and deployed at concessional cost in developing countries. Additionally, there could be collaborative R&D projects with sharing of IPRs by the partner R&D institutions.

25. The Ministers also noted that resources required for adaptation are of the same order of magnitude as those for GHG mitigation. For this, resources from the entire carbon market, as is being done on a small scale from the 2% levy on the CDM proceeds should be mobilized. These resources are separate from the provision of new and additional resources

to tackle the challenges of adapting to the adverse effects of climate change. The Ministers underlined that diversion of ODA resources from economic growth and poverty alleviation in developing countries for adaptation is not the answer as development is a prerequisite for achieving effective adaptation.

INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY

26. The Ministers underscored the importance and welcomed the continued discussions on the establishment of a "Development Agenda for WIPO". The Ministers also emphasized the need for early conclusion of the discussions and incorporation of development dimensions in the work programs of WIP

  1. The Ministers also reaffirmed the need to reach a solution to the problem arising out of granting of intellectual property rights on biological resources and/or associated traditional knowledge, without due compliance with relevant provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity. In this regard, the Ministers highlighted with great appreciation the presentation in the WTO of the proposal co-sponsored, among others, by the three IBSA

    countries to amend the TRIPS Agreement by introducing a mandatory requirement for the disclosure of origin of biological resources and/or associated traditional knowledge

    used in inventions for which applications for intellectual property rights are filed. The Ministers also reaffirmed their support for the principle of prior informed consent and

    equitable benefit sharing.

  1. In the context of continued increase in the grant of patents on bio-resources and traditional knowledge and also registration of trade marks, the Ministers resolved to

    further co-operate and intensity their efforts in resolution of these issues.

  1. The Ministers reaffirmed the understanding enshrined in the Doha Declaration that the TRIPS Agreement does not and should not prevent Members from taking measures to protect public health and that accordingly each member has the right to grant compulsory licences and the freedom to determine the grounds upon which such licences are granted.

BIODIVERSITY ISSUES

  1. The Ministers noted with appreciation the decisions of the Eighth Conference of the Parties (CoP-8) to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) held in Curitiba, Brazil, in March 2006, to complete negotiations of the International Regime (IR) on Access and Benefit Sharing (ABS) by 2010, and to hold two negotiation meetings of the ABS

    Working Group prior to CoP-9 to be held in May 2008.

  1. India, Brazil and South Africa, as founding members of the Group of Like Minded Megadiverse Countries (LMMCs), agreed to strengthen cooperation and coordination in

    fostering activities related to South-South cooperation, with emphasis on multilateral negotiations, in particular for ensuring timely, and successful conclusion of the IR on ABS.

SOUTH-SOUTH COOPERATION

  1. The Ministers reaffirmed the role of South-South cooperation as a continuing process vital to confront the challenges faced by the South, in particular its role as an important tool crucial for fostering and strengthening the economic independence of developing countries and achieving development as one of the means of ensuring the equitable global economic order.

  1. The Ministers recognized that South-South cooperation has created a stronger collective voice for the countries of the South in the international arena. South-South cooperation has

    become an integral part of the relations among the developing countries and an important means of promoting the exchange of ideas, experience, knowledge, technical advances, skills and expertise across a broad range of sectors.

  1. In order to expand both the strength and the scope of South-South cooperation, the Ministers resolved to enhance their policy coordination and high-level dialogue on the

    common challenges faced by developing countries, such as MDGs and international development cooperation, financing for development, market access in the global trading system, fighting environmental degradation and infectious diseases. The Ministers further agreed to enhance South-South cooperation in wide ranging fields, inter alia, trade and

    investment, S&T, infrastructure, health and education.

  1. The Ministers urged the international community to provide financial and institutional support for South-South cooperation. The Ministers reaffirmed that South-South

    cooperation is complementary to and not a substitute for North-South cooperation.

SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

  1. The Ministers reaffirmed their shared commitment on eradication of poverty through sustainable development. The Ministers highlighted the importance of implementing the

    principles adopted in the Rio Declaration and the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, particularly the principle of common

    but differentiated responsibilities. The Ministers underlined that binding targets for developing countries were inappropriate. Instead, the focus should be on compliance of

    targets accepted by developed countries.

  1. The Ministers stressed that capacity building is a key component for ensuring sustainable development globally. The Ministers highlighted the importance of new and additional financial resources and effective transfer of environment-friendly technologies at affordable prices to developing countries for achieving this goal. In this context, the

    Ministers noted with concern the failure of the donor countries to meet their commitments of Official Development Assistance targets to developing countries, and urged them to

    fulfill their commitments.

  1. The Ministers reaffirmed the importance of conservation, protection and sustainable use of genetic resources. They highlighted the need to adopt an international regime to

    protect and safeguard the equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources and traditional knowledge. In this context, the Ministers urged the international community to make all efforts to conclude the negotiation process for such an international regime, within the framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity, by 2010.

  1. The Ministers noted the decision of the 11th Session of the Commission on Sustainable Development regarding the multi-year framework and the fact that the 2008-09 cycle will

    deal with the thematic areas of agriculture, rural development, land, draught and desertification.

  1. The Ministers noted the increasingly important work of the International

    Seabed Authority as well as the increasing commercial interests in deep seabed mining and reaffirmed their commitment to the universalization of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and the Agreement relating to the implementation of Part XI of the UNCLOS. The Ministers also reaffirmed that all activities affecting the area should be conducted for the benefit of mankind as a whole on the basis of relevant principles

    governing the Area and marine scientific research.

  1. The Ministers noted the discussions on marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction that took place during the meeting of the United Nations Open-Ended

    Informal Consultative Process at the United Nations from 25-29 June 2007 and reiterated that the conservation, exploration and exploitation of marine genetic resources in areas beyond national jurisdiction should occur within the framework of the UNCLOS.

  1. The Ministers reiterated their countries' commitment to achieve sustainable development, and stressed the importance of international cooperation in this regard.

HUMAN RIGHTS

43. The Ministers noted that India, Brazil and South Africa as members of the Human Rights Council, share a common vision regarding the promotion and protection of human rights through dialogue and cooperation. Guided by this vision, the three countries actively participated in the institution-building phase of this newly-formed human rights body with a

view to making the Council a strong, effective and efficient body capable of promoting and protecting human rights and fundamental freedoms for all and introducing a new work

culture of cooperation and mutual understanding in the functioning of the international human rights machinery. The Ministers remain committed to continue actively participating

in a coordinated manner in the work of the international human rights machinery to pursue the objective of securing effective enjoyment of human rights by all, including vulnerable groups and the implementation of the right to development.

PEACE AND SECURITY

TERRORISM

  1. The Ministers reaffirmed that terrorism constitutes one of the most serious threats to international peace and security. They strongly condemned terrorism in all its forms

    and manifestations, committed by whomever, wherever and for whatever purpose. They stressed that there can be no justification, whatsoever, for any acts of terrorism. They

    emphasized the need for concerted and coordinated action by the international community to realize the objectives of eradicating terrorism in all its forms and manifestations.

  1. The Ministers reaffirmed their commitment to the full implementation of the measures to combat terrorism outlined in the UN Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy and the relevant

    UN Security Council and General Assembly Resolutions. They recalled that the Outcome Document of 2005 World Summit had called upon the member states to conclude a Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism during the 60th Session

    of the General Assembly, and stressed the importance of finalizing early the Comprehensive Convention on International Terrorism and called upon all states to cooperate in resolving the outstanding issues with the objectives of an expeditious conclusion of negotiations and

    adoption of this Convention.

  1. The Ministers emphasized that international cooperation in combating terrorism should be conducted in conformity with the principles of the UN Charter, international law and

    relevant international conventions.

DISARMAMENT AND NON-PROLIFERATION

47. The Ministers reiterated their commitment to the goal of complete elimination of nuclear weapons and expressed concern over the lack of progress in realization of that goal. The Ministers emphasized that nuclear disarmament and nuclear non-

proliferation are mutually reinforcing processes requiring continuous irreversible progress on both fronts,

and reaffirmed, in this regard, that the objective of non-proliferation would be best served by systematic and progressive elimination of nuclear weapons in a comprehensive, universal, non-discriminatory and verifiable manner. The Ministers recalled that similar approaches have led to the establishment of internationally legally binding instruments that have banned chemical and biological weapons and are contributing towards the total elimination of such weapons and reaffirmed their commitment to make efforts in

the relevant multilateral forums for a universal instrument to ban nuclear weapons and to achieve their complete elimination. The Ministers emphasized the necessity to start

negotiations on a phased programme for the complete elimination of nuclear weapons with a specified framework of time to eliminate nuclear weapons, to prohibit their development, production, acquisition, testing, stockpiling, transfer, use or threat of use, and to provide for their destruction.

  1. In this context, the Ministers also expressed concern over the inability of the Conference on Disarmament (CD), the world's single multilateral disarmament negotiating forum, to

    engage in substantive work. The Ministers noted that several proposals have been made in the CD with regard to a programme of work and reiterated their commitment to work

    constructively to reach to a consensus taking into account the concerns of all the Member States. In this context, reiterating that the Five Ambassadors' proposal as revised in

    2003 still remained a viable basis for reaching a consensus, the Ministers took note of the collective efforts made in 2007 by the six Presidents of the Conference and encouraged

    them to continue with their intensive consultations with a view to reaching an agreement on a programme of work to commence substantive work of the Conference.

  1. The Ministers discussed the threat posed by terrorists and other non-state actors acquiring nuclear weapons or their related materials and technologies. They reaffirmed their

    commitment to contribute to multilateral efforts to counter such threats and

    promote co-operation in this regard and welcomed in this regard the adoption of the International

    Convention for the Suppression of Acts of Nuclear Terrorism. The Ministers expressed their conviction that the best way to prevent non-state actors or terrorists from acquiring nuclear

    weapons is the total elimination of such weapons.

  1. The Ministers expressed their commitment to the universalization of the Convention for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons and Biological Weapons Convention (BWC), as

    well as to the goal of ensuring their balanced, transparent and effective implementation.

  1. The Ministers recalled the importance of cooperative and effective international action against the illicit trade in small arms, light weapons and ammunition. The Ministers

    underscored the priority to full implementation of the United Nations Programme of Action to Prevent, Combat and Eradicate the Illicit Trade in Small Arms and Light Weapons in All Its Aspects (UNPoA).

DISASTER MANAGEMENT

52. The Ministers expressed concern over the human suffering and economic impact caused by the natural disasters throughout the world. The Ministers emphasized the need for

national efforts to be supplemented by enhanced international and regional cooperation in the sphere of disaster risk reduction, mitigation and management. In this context, the

ministers welcomed the establishment of the UN Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF) in 2005 which has contributed in strengthening the United Nation's capacity to respond to natural disasters in a predictable and timely manner. The Ministers also welcomed the convening of the first session of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction in Geneva from June 5-7, 2007, which brought together a wide range of

actors associated with different aspects of disaster risk reduction and contributed in raising awareness on this important issue. The Ministers agreed to explore the possibilities of enhanced cooperation among the three countries through exchange

of experiences and expertise in the area of disaster reduction, mitigation and management.

PEACEFUL USES OF NUCLEAR ENERGY

  1. The Ministers took note with satisfaction of the positive continuing cooperation among their countries at the IAEA and other fora, with a view to ensuring the unimpeded growth and development of peaceful uses of atomic energy, through the supply of technology, equipment and material, under appropriate safeguards, and reaffirmed their will to intensify such cooperation.

  1. The Ministers reiterated the importance of ensuring that any multilateral decisions related to the nuclear fuel cycle do not undermine the inalienable right of States to pursue

    nuclear energy for peaceful purposes in conformity with their international legal obligations.

  1. The Ministers emphasized the need to ensure the supply of safe, sustainable and non-polluting sources of energy to meet the rising global demand for energy, particularly in

    developing countries. In this context, the Ministers agreed that nuclear energy could play an important role. The Ministers agreed to explore approaches to cooperation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy under appropriate IAEA safeguards. The Ministers further agreed that international civilian nuclear cooperation, under appropriate IAEA safeguards, amongst countries committed to nuclear disarmament and non-proliferation objectives could be

    enhanced through acceptable forward-looking approaches, consistent with their respective national and international obligations.

REGIONAL COOPERATION

THE NEW PARTNERSHIP FOR AFRICA'S DEVELOPMENT (NEPAD)

56. The Ministers recognized the new trends in socio-economic development in Africa and its growing relationship through the Africa Union and with its partners such as India and

Brazil. The Ministers also recognized the efforts made by the African Union to




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